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Pattern Meanings 
 
Patterns are set sequences of moves that enable a student to train alone. There are 24 patterns in traditional ITF Tae Kwon-Do.  Kernow Tae Kwon-Do Academy students are also encouraged to learn 5 additional patterns at various stages in their Tae Kwon-Do development.
 
For the pattern videos click here
 
Details of the pattern moves and more about the history and philosophy behind the patterns are available in the fundamental and advanced training manuals.
 
Coloured Belt Patterns

 
1. Chon-Ji - 19 moves - learnt at 9th Kup
Chon-Ji literally means ‘Heaven and Earth’. It is, in the orient, interpreted as the creation of the world or the beginning of human history. Therefore, it is the initial pattern played by the beginner. This pattern consists of two similar parts: one to represent Heaven, the other the Earth.
 
2. Dan-Gun - 21 moves - learnt at 8th Kup
Dan-Gun is named after the Holy Dan-Gun, the legendary founder of Korea in the year 2333 B.C.
 
3. Do-San - 24 moves - learnt at 7th Kup
Do-San is the pseudonym of the patriot Ahn Chang-Ho (1876 to 1938), who devoted his entire life to furthering the education of Korea and its Independent Movement.
 
4. Won-Hyo - 28 moves - learnt at 6th Kup
Won-Hyo was the noted monk who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in the year 686 AD
 
5. Yul-Gok - 38 moves - learnt at 5th Kup
Yul-Gok is the pseudonym of the great philosopher and scholar Yi I (1536 to 1584 AD) nicknamed the ‘Confucius of Korea’. The 38 movements refer to his birthplace on the 38o latitude and the diagram (±) represents the scholar.
 
6. Joong-Gun - 32 moves - learnt at 4th Kup
Joong-Gun is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Hiro Bumi Ito, the first Japanese governor-general of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger. The 32 movements of this pattern represent Mr Ahn’s age when he was executed in the Lui-Shung prison (1910)
 
7. Toi-Gye - 37 moves - learnt at 3rd Kup
Toi-Gye is the penname of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16th Century AD), an authority on Neo-Confucianism. The 37 movements refer to his birthplace on the 37-degree latitude and the diagram (±) represents the scholar.
 
8. Hwa-Rang - 29 moves - learnt at 2nd Kup
Hwa-Rang is named after the Hwa-Rang youth group, which originated in the Silla Dynasty during the early 7th Century AD. This group eventually became the actual driving force towards the unification of the three kingdoms of Korea.
The 29 movements refer to the 29th Infantry Division, where Tae Kwon-Do developed into maturity.
 
9. Choong-Moo - 30 moves - learnt at 1st Kup
Choong-Moo was the given name of the great admiral Yi Sun-Sin of the Yi Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armoured battleship, nicknamed Kobukson, which was the precursor to the present day submarine, in the year 1592 AD. The reason why this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolise his regrettable death, having had no chance to show his unrestrained potentiality, checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to his King.
 
A: Koryo - 30 moves - optional pattern learnt at 1st Kup
Koryo is the name of an ancient Korean dynasty (918-1392), and gives rise to the English word ‘Korea’. Koryo's legacy is very significant, with Koryo men inventing the first metal type in 1234 AD, more than two centuries before Johannes Guttenberg. They also created the famous Koryo ceramics. More importantly, Koryo represents the strong conviction and will with which Koryo men held the Mongolians in check. The diagram (±) represents the Chinese letter, "seonbae", meaning a learned man or a man of virtue in the Korean language.
- Koryo can also be described as ‘Silence in Action’, with the body in action but the mind in silence, being peaceful, calm and under control.

 
 
Black Belt Patterns

 
10. Kwang-Gae - 39 moves - learnt at 1st Dan
Kwang-Gae is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-Toh-Wang, the 19th King of the Koguryo Dynasty who regained all of the lost territories including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram (±) represents the expansion and recovery of lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the 1st two figures of 391 AD, the year he came to the throne.
 
11. Po-Eun - 36 moves - learnt at 1st Dan
Po-Eun is the pseudonym of the loyal subject Chong Mong-Chu (1400 AD) who was a famous poet and whose poem ‘I would not serve a second master though I may be crucified a hundred times’ is known to every Korean. He was also a pioneer in the field of physics. The diagram (―) represents his unerring loyalty to his King and country towards the end of the Koryo Dynasty.
 
12. Ge-Baek - 44 moves - learnt at 1st Dan
Ge-Baek is named after Ge-Baek, a great General in the Baek-Je Dynasty (660 AD). The diagram ( І ) represents his severe and strict military discipline.
 
B: Keumgang -  27 moves - optional pattern learnt at 1st Dan
Keumgang-San is a mountain located in the Tae-Baek range, which is hailed as the most beautiful mountain on the entire peninsular and the centre of national spirit by the Korean people. Diamonds are known to the Koreans as Keumgang-Seok. and Keumgang-Yeoksa was named by Buddha as the mightiest warrior. These meanings indicate that Keumgang is based on a spiritual strength that is as beautiful and majestic as the mountains and as hard and adamant as the diamond and the warrior.
 
C: Myong-Song -  44 moves - optional pattern learnt at 1st Dan
Myong-Song is named after her Imperial Majesty, Empress Myong-Song of Korea, 1851 to 1895 AD. Recognised as a heroine by the Korean people and affectionately known as Queen Min, she introduced many technologies including trains, telephones and electric lighting. But it was in foreign affairs where she truly proved herself, as she worked to prevent Japanese control of Korea through diplomacy. The 44 moves and 44 kicks represent the age of Korea’s Last Empress when she was brutally murdered by Japanese assassins, shortly before she could sign a deal with Russia that would have prevented the Japanese annexation of Korea.
 
 
13. Eui-Am - 45 moves - learnt at 2nd Dan
Eui-Am is the pseudonym of Son Byong Hi, leader of the Korean independence movement on March 1, 1919. The 45 movements refer to his age when he changed the name of Dong Hak (Oriental culture) to Chondo Kyo (Heavenly way religion) in 1905. The diagram represents his Indomitable Spirit, displayed while dedicating himself to the prosperity of his nation.
 
14. Choong-Jang - 52 moves - learnt at 2nd Dan
Choong-Jang is the pseudonym given to General Kim Duk Ryang who lived during the Yi Dynasty, 16th century. This pattern ends with a left-hand attack to symbolize the tragedy of his death at 27 in prison before he was able to reach full maturity.
 
15. Ko-Dang - 39 moves - learnt at 2nd Dan
Ko-Dang is the pseudonym of the patriot Cho Man Sik who dedicated his life to the independence movement and education of his people. The 39 movements signify his times of imprisonment and his birthplace on the 39th parallel.
 
D: Tae-Baek - 26 moves - optional pattern learnt at 2nd Dan
Tae-Baek is the mountain range where Dan-Gun founded the Korean Nation. Tae-Baek means ‘bright mountain’ and although the exact location which was home to Dan-Gun is not known, Mount Baek-Du, the highest and grandest mountain on the Korean peninsular is considered the most likely candidate and is thus sacred to the Koreans. The ‘bright mountain’ symbolises both the sacredness of the soul and the humanitarian ideal (Hongik-Ingan) of Dan-Gun. The diagram represents the Chinese letter which symbolises the bridge between Heaven and Earth, showing that Dan-Gun founded Korea as an order from Heaven.
 
E: Juche - 45 moves - optional pattern learnt at 2nd Dan
Juche is a philosophical idea that man is the master of everything and decides everything. In other words, the idea that man is the master of the world and his own destiny. It is said that this idea was rooted in Baekdu Mountain which symbolizes the spirit of the Korean people. The diagram represents Baekdu mountain.
 
 
16. Sam-Il - 33 moves - learnt at 3rd Dan
Sam-Il denotes the historical date of the independence movement of Korea which began throughout the country on March 1, 1919. The 33 movements in the pattern stand for the 33 patriots who planned the movement.
 
17. Yoo-Sin - 68 moves - learnt at 3rd Dan
Yoo-Sin is named after General Kim Yoo Sin, a commanding general during the Silla Dynasty. The 68 movements refer to the last two figures of 668 A.D., the year Korea was united. The ready posture signifies a sword drawn on the right rather than left side, symbolizing Yoo Sin's mistake of following his Kings' orders to fight with foreign forces against his own nation.
 
18. Choi-Yong - 46 moves - learnt at 3rd Dan
Choi-Yong is named after General Choi Yong, premier and commander in chief of the armed forces during the 14th century Koryo Dynasty. Choi Yong was greatly respected for his loyalty, patriotism, and humility. He was executed by his subordinate commanders headed by general Yi Sung Gae, who later became the first King of the Yi Dynasty.
 
 
19. Yong-Gae - 49 moves - learnt at 4th or 5th Dan
Yong-Gae is named after a famous general during the Koguryo Dynasty, Yon Gae Somoon. The 49 movements refer to the last two figures of 649 A.D., the year he forced the Tang Dynasty to quit Korea after destroying nearly 300,000 of their troops at Ansi Sung.
 
20. Ul-Ji - 42 moves - learnt at 4th Dan
Ul-Ji is named after general Ul-Ji Moon Dok who successfully defended Korea against a Tang's invasion force of nearly one million soldiers led by Yang Je in 612 A.D. Ul-Ji employing hit and run guerilla tactics, was able to decimate a large percentage of the force. The diagram represents his surname. The 42 movements represent the author's age when he designed the pattern.
 
21. Moon-Moo - 61 moves - learnt at 4th or 5th Dan
Moon-Moo honours the 30th King of the Silla Dynasty. His body was buried near Dae Wang Am (Great King's Rock). According to his will, the body was placed in the sea "where my soul shall forever defend my land against the Japanese." It is said that the Sok Gul Am (Stone cave) was built to guard his tomb. The Sok Gul Am is a fine example of the culture of the Silla Dynasty. The 61 movements in this pattern symbolize the last two figures of 661 A.D. when Moon Moo came to the throne.
 
note: when grading to 5th Dan, GTI students perform Se-Jong, Ul-Ji and Tong-Il 
 
22. So-San - 72 moves - learnt at 5th Dan
So-San is the pseudonym of the great monk Choi Hyong Ung (1520-1604) during the Yi Dynasty. The 72 movements refer to his age when he organized a corps of monk soldiers with the assistance of his pupil Sa Myunh Dang. The monk soldiers helped repulse the Japanese pirates who overran most of the Korean peninsula in 1592.
 
23. Se-Jong - 24 moves - learnt at 4th or 5th Dan
Se-Jong is named after the greatest Korean King, Se-Jong, who invented the Korean alphabet in 1443, and was also a noted meteorologist. The diagram represents the king, while the 24 movements refer to the 24 letters of the Korean alphabet.
 
 
24. Tong-Il - 56 moves - learnt at 4th, 5th or 6th Dan
Tong-Il denotes the resolution of the unification of Korea which has been divided since 1945. The diagram symbolizes the homogenous race.